The country of Italy is well-known for things both spectacular - (Michelangelo's David. The Vatican and the Sistine Chapel. Mt. Vesuvius and Pompeii.) and mundane - (it is shaped like a boot. It is the home of pizza and the movie "Roman Holiday".)
Italy is surrounded on three sides by water; the Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea. In the north, it shares the Alps with France, Switzerland, Monaco, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany and Slovenia. The Apennines (a mountain range that stretches almost the entire length of the country) are the source for Italy's fresh water as well as it's earthquakes. And of course, its capital city of Rome has been the center of civilization for more than 2,000 years!
If you want to visit the main sites at a somewhat leisurely pace, I suggest you allocate two weeks. And as soon as you return home, start planning your next trip so you can take in the rest!